Framework Architecture

.net security is not an island of generation, but a slice of a bigger entity referred to as the .net Framework. Primary expertise of the .net Framework is required before trying .net security programming. This chapter provides the primary standards of the .net Framework architecture and programming. That is an overview and isn’t always intended to replace the independent examine required for a mastery of this subject.

Microsoft .net is not only a one of a kind spin on the Win32 running version. Furthermore, despite reviews to the opposite, it isn’t always Java in wolf’s garb. You’ll by no means understand or adequately provide an explanation for .net surely by evaluating it to present products. .net is new. As such, .internet introduces a sparkling working modality and perspective on computing software and gadgets.
To help create languages for the .NET Framework, Microsoft created the Common Language Infrastructure specification (CLI). The CLI describes the features that each language must provide in order to use the .NET Framework and comm6n language runtime and to interoperate with components written in other languages. If a language implements the necessary functionality, it is said to be .NET-compliant.
Every .NET-compliant language supports the same data types, uses the same .NET Framework classes, compiles to the same MSIL, and uses a single common language runtime to manage execution. Because of this, every .NET-compliant language is a first-class Microsoft .NET citizen.-Developers are free to choose the best language for a particular component without losing any of the power and freedom of the platform. In addition, components written in one language can easily interoperate with components written in another language. For example, you can write a class in C# that inherits from a base class written in Visual Basic.
The .NET Framework was developed so that it could support a theoretically infinite number of development languages. Currently, more than 20 development languages work with the .NET Framework. C# is the programming language specifically designed for the .NET platform, but C++ and Visual Basic have also been upgraded to fully support the .NET framework. The following are the commonly used languages provided by the Microsoft:
• VC++
• J#

JScript .NET

Many third parties are writing compilers for other languages with .NET support. With CLR, Microsoft has adopted a much liberal policy. Microsoft has themselves evolved/ developed/ modified many of their programming languages which compliant with .NET CLR.


Although Visual C++ (VC++) , has undergone changes to incorporate .NET; yet VC++ also maintains its status being a platform dependent programming. Many new MFC classes have been added a programmer can choose between using MFC and compiling the program into a platform specific executable file; or using .NET framework classes and compile into platform independent MISL file. A programmer can also specify (via directives) whenever he uses “unsafe” (the code that by passes CLR, e.g. the use of pointers) code.


Out of ALL .NET languages, Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is one language that has probably undergone into the most of changes. Now VB.NET may be considered a complete Object- Oriented Language (as opposed to its previous “Half Object Based and Half Object Oriented” status).
Visual Basic .NET provides substantial language innovations over previous versions of visual basic. Visual Basic .NET supports inheritance, constructors, polymorphism, constructor overloading, structured exceptions, stricter type checking, free threading, and many other features. There is only one form of assignment: noLet of set methods. New rapid application development (BAD) features, such as XML Designer, Server Explorer, and Web Forms designer, are available in Visual Basic from Visual Studio .NET. With this release, Visual Basic Scripting Edition provides full Visual Basic functionality.


Microsoft has also developed a brand new programming language C# (C Sharp). This language makes full use of .NET. It is a pure object oriented language. A Java programmer may find most aspects of this language which is identical to Java. If you are a new comer to Microsoft Technologies – this language is the easiest way to get on the .NET band wagon. While VC++ and VB enthusiast would stick to VC.NET and VB.NET; they would probably increase their productivity by switching to C#. C# is developed to make full use of all the intricacies of .NET. The learning curve of C# for a Java programmer is minimal. Microsoft has also come up with a The Microsoft Java Language Conversion Assistant-which is a tool that automatically converts existing Java-language source code into C# for developers who want to move their existing applications to the Microsoft .NET Framework.


Microsoft has also developed J# (Java Sharp). C# is similar to Java, but it is not entirely’ identical. It is for this reason that Microsoft has developed J# – the syntax of J# is identical to Visual J++. Microsoft’s growing legal battle with Sun, over Visual J++ – forced Microsoft to discontinue Visual J++. So J# is Microsoft’s indirect continuation of Visual J++. It has been reported that porting a medium sized Visual J++ project, entirely to J# takes only a few days of effort.


Jscript.NET is rewritten to be fully .NET aware. It includes support for classes, inheritance, types and compilation, and it provides improved performance and productivity features. JScript.NET is also integrated with visual Studio .NET. You can take advantage of any .NET Framework class in JScript .NET.

Comparison of the programming languages

VC# is a high level language that is component oriented.
C++ is a low level and indeed platform neutral programming language.
It is a multi-paradigm, object oriented
When compiled, C# code is converted into intermediate language code.
When compiled, C++ code is converted into assembly language code.
Here, sub is used in method declaration to indicate that the method does not return any value.
In C# memory management is automatically handled by garbage collector.
In C++, the memory that is allocated in the heap dynamically has to be explicitly deleted.
The overload keyword is used to indicate an overloaded method.
In C# switch statement, test variables can be string.
In C++ switch statement, the test variables cannot be a string.
Compound data types are declared in VB.Net using structure.
While and do while, C# has another flow control statement call for each.
C++ does not contain for each statement.
Object cleanup can be done by using finalize method in VB.Net.

Third-party languages

Microsoft encourages third party vendors to make use of Visual Studio. Net. Third, party vendors can write compilers for different languages ~ that compile the language to MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language). These vendors need not develop their own development environment. They can easily use Visual Studio.NET as an IDE for their .NET compliant language. A vendor has already produced COBOL.NET that integrates with Visual Studio.NET and compiles into MSIL. Theoretically it would then be possible to come up with Java compiler that compiles into MSIL, instead of Java Byte code; and uses CLR instead of JVM. However Microsoft has not pursued this due to possible legal action by Sun.
Several third party languages are supporting the .NET platform. These languages include APL, COBOL, Pascal, Eiffel, Haskell, ML, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme and Smalltalk.

.net framework architecture

It is not only a package or language. It is called as .NET Environment or platform. At the introduction of .net, it came with several languages like vb .net, C#, COBOL and Perl. Programs developed in Machine level language are converted at the time of executing which is directly executed in the operating system. It is said that it supports 44 languages. These languages, plus other experimental languages like F#, all compile to the common language specification and can work together in the same application.
The codeguru (Juday, 2009)portrayed .NET as a new standard that will allow software to run anywhere, at any time, on any platform, and on devices large and small. It is an object oriented language. It provides tools and libraries that enable developers to create Windows software much faster and easier. It is highly secure because it uses clauses and objects as their building blocks and runs on almost all operating systems.
This has reported many times, but it is worth repeating: “Microsoft was late to realize the importance and then embrace the Internet.” Recently, Microsoft has been making up for that late start. .NET marks the next major step in that journey. The Internet is not an adjunct of .NET, but is interwoven seamlessly into the product. The Internet was planned, integrated, and implemented into .NET—including the embracing of open standards such as XML and HTTP. Essentially, any platform that offers a browser that understands XML or HTML is a potential .NET client.
The Internet is open 7 days per week and 24 hours per day. The Internet never closes. Since .NET leverages the Internet, .NET applications such as a Web service are fully accessible at any time.

Any platform

.NET is a Multilanguage and multiplatform operating environment. Compare this to Java, which is single-language and multiplatform. .NET offers C#, Visual Basic .NET, and many more .NET-compliant languages. Programming in .NET does not require learning an entirely new language. To program to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) requires learning the Java language. For many, this is a substantial drawback. The common language runtime is the common runtime of all .NET languages. In addition, Microsoft publishes the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) document, which is a set of guidelines for creating a .NET common language runtime for any platform, such as Linux. To view one such initiative, visit In the future, developers can create .NET applications in Windows and run them in Linux, Unix, Macintosh, or any platform that offers a common language runtime.

Devices large and small

 NET marks Microsoft’s first extensive support of open standards, even if it is rather tepid. Microsoft adopts HTTP, SMTP, SOAP, XML, and many more standards. This means that any device that supports these standards can actively participate in a .NET conversation. This will liberate personal digital assistants (PDAs), hand-held, and embedded devices. These devices lack the girth to run powerful applications, such as full-blown Microsoft Office. Using open standards, these devices can tap the power of a back-end server and run virtually any program. The embedded chip in your refrigerator could access Microsoft Word remotely, compose a grocery list, and print it to a networked printer. Refrigerators with word-processing capabilities—way cool!

.NET Is Web Enabled

Microsoft .NET is Web empowered. Developers can use ASP.NET, XML Web services, and ADO.NET to easily create feature-rich Web applications. This represents the front, middle, and bottom tier of an n-tiered enterprise application. Despite this, do not believe the rhetoric stating that Microsoft has abandoned client-side applications—some applications will never be well suited for server-side operations. Windows Forms, a new forms generation engine, and other additions in the .NET Framework make development of traditional Windows applications more intuitive, while adding additional features.

.NET Framework Architecture

.NET is tiered, modular, and hierarchal. Each tier of the .NET Framework is a layer of abstraction. .NET languages are the top tier and the most abstracted level. The common language runtime is the bottom tier, the least abstracted, and closest to the native environment. This is important since the common language runtime works closely with the operating environment to manage .NET applications. The .NET Framework is partitioned into modules, each with its own distinct responsibility. Finally, since higher tiers request services only from the lower tiers, .NET is hierarchal. The architectural layout of the .NET framework is given in the figure.
.NET Framework is a managed environment. The common language runtime monitors the execution of .NET applications and provides essential services. It manages memory, handles exceptions, ensures that applications are well-behaved, and much more.
Figure 2: .NET framework
Language interoperability is one goal of .NET. .NET languages share a common runtime (the common language runtime, a common class library), the Framework Class Library (FCL), a common component model, and common types. In .NET, the programming language is a lifestyle choice. Except for subtle differences, C#, VB.NET, or JScript.NET offer a similar experience.
.NET abstracts lower-level services, while retaining most of their flexibility. This is important to C-based programmers, who shudder at the limitations presented in Visual Basic 6 and earlier.

Managed Languages and Common Language Specification

.NET supports managed and unmanaged programming languages. Applications created from managed languages, such as C# and VB.NET, execute under the management of a common runtime, called the common language runtime.
There are several differences between a compiled managed application and an unmanaged program.
·         Managed applications compile to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) and metadata. MSIL is a low-level language that all managed languages compile to instead of native binary. Using just-in-time compilation, at code execution, MSIL is converted into binary optimized both to the environment and the hardware. Since all managed languages ultimately become MSIL, there is a high degree of language interoperability in .NET.
·         Metadata is data that describes data. In a managed application, also called an assembly, metadata formally defines the types employed by the program.
·         Wave a fond goodbye to the Registry. Managed applications are sweeping away the Registry, Interface Definition Language (IDL) files, and type libraries with a single concept called metadata. Metadata and the related manifest describe the overall assembly and the specific types of an assembly.
·         Managed applications have limited exposure to the unmanaged environment. This might be frustrating to many programmers, particularly experienced C gurus. However, .NET has considerable flexibility. For those determined to use unmanaged code, there are interoperability services.

.Net Framework 2.0 Features

The Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 includes significant enhancements to all areas of ASP.NET. For Web page development, new controls make it easier to add commonly used functionality to dynamic Web pages. New data controls make it possible to display and edit data on an ASP.NET Web page without writing code. An improved code-behind model makes developing ASP.NET pages easier and more robust. Caching features provide several new ways to cache pages, including the ability to build cache dependency on tables in a SQL Server database.

.Net Framework 3.0/3.5 Features

Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is a next-generation presentation system for building Windows client applications. The core of WPF is a resolution-independent and vector-based rendering engine that is built to take advantage of modern graphics hardware.
WPF extends the core with a comprehensive set of application-development features that include Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML), controls, data binding, layout, 2-D and 3-Dgraphics, animation, styles, templates, documents, media, text, and typography. WPF is included in the Microsoft .NET Framework, so you can build applications that incorporate other elements of the .NET Framework class library.
To support some of the more powerful WPF capabilities and to simplify the programming experience, WPF includes additional programming constructs that enhance properties and events: dependency properties and routed events.

.Net Framework 4.0 Features

The .NET Framework 4 does not automatically use its version of the common language runtime to run applications that are built with earlier versions of the .NET Framework. To run older applications with .NET Framework 4, you must compile your application with the target .NET Framework version specified in the properties for your project in Visual Studio, or you can specify the supported runtime with the <supportedRuntime> Element in an application configuration file.

.Net Framework 4.5 Features

The Portable Class Library project in Visual Studio 2012 enables you to write and build managed assemblies that work on multiple .NET Framework platforms. Using a Portable Class Library project, you choose the platforms (such as Windows Phone and .NET for Windows Store apps) to target.


Visual studio provides an integrated development environment (IDE) for developers to create standalone Windows applications, interactive Web Sites, Web applications, and Web services running on any platform that supports .net. In addition, there are many .net framework tools to assist developers and programmers to create, configure, deploy, manage and secure the .net applications and components. So, these were the different types of .NET framework that helps to develop different kinds of desktop as well as web based application.

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